NETosis 2 The Excitement Continues

NETosis, a form of cell death that manifests by the release of decondensed chromatin to the extracellular space, provides valuable insights into mechanisms and consequences of cellular demise. Because extracellular chromatin can immobilize microbes, the extended nucleohistone network was called a neutrophil extracellular trap (NET), and the process of chromatin release was proposed to serve an innate immune defense function. Extracellular chromatin NETs were initially observed in studies of neutrophils and are most prominent in these types of granulocytes. Subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes and, in a limited way, other cells of the innate immune response may also release nuclear chromatin following certain kinds of stimulation. Variations of NETosis were noted with cells that remain temporarily motile after the release of chromatin. Numerous stimuli for NETosis were discovered, including bacterial breakdown products, inflammatory stimuli, particulate matter, certain crystals, immune complexes and activated thrombocytes. Fundamental explorations into the mechanisms of NETosis observed that neutrophil enzyme activity (PAD4, neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase) and signal transduction pathways contribute to the regulation of NETosis. Histones in NET chromatin become modified by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and cleaved at specific sites by proteases, leading to extensive chromatin externalization. In addition, NETs serve for attachment of bactericidal enzymes including myeloperoxidase, leukocyte proteases, and the cathelicidin LL-37. NETs are decorated with proteases and may thus contribute to tissue destruction. However, the attachment of these enzymes to NET-associated supramolecular structures restricts systemic spread of the proteolytic activity. While the benefit of NETs in an infection appears obvious, NETs also participate as key protagonists in various pathologic states. Therefore, it is essential for NETs to be efficiently cleared; otherwise digestive enzymes may gain access to tissues where inflammation takes place. Persistent NET exposure at sites of inflammation may lead to a further complication: NET antigens may provoke acquired immune responses and, over time, could initiate autoimmune reactions, serve as antigen for nuclear autoantibodies and foster DNA immune complex-related inflammation. Neutrophil products and deiminated proteins comprise an important group of autoantigens in musculoskeletal disorders. Aberrant NET synthesis and/or clearance are often associated with inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Recent evidence also implicates aberrant NET formation in the development of endothelial damage, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Intravital microscopy provides evidence for conditions that induce NETosis in vivo. Furthermore, NETs can easily be detected in synovial fluid and tissue sections of patients with arthritis and gout. NETosis is thus of interest to researchers who investigate innate immune responses, host-pathogen interactions, chronic inflammatory disorders, cell and vascular biology, biochemistry, and autoimmunity. As we enter the second decade of research on NETosis, it is useful and timely to review the mechanisms and pathways of NET formation, their role in bacterial and fungal defense and their importance as inducers of autoimmune responses.

Produk Detail:

  • Author : Mariana J. Kaplan
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Pages : 123 pages
  • ISBN : 2889453790
  • Rating : 5/5 from 1 reviews
CLICK HERE TO GET THIS BOOKNETosis 2 The Excitement Continues

NETosis 2: The Excitement Continues

NETosis 2: The Excitement Continues
  • Author : Mariana J. Kaplan,Marko Radic,Martin Herrmann
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 28 December 2017
GET THIS BOOKNETosis 2: The Excitement Continues

NETosis, a form of cell death that manifests by the release of decondensed chromatin to the extracellular space, provides valuable insights into mechanisms and consequences of cellular demise. Because extracellular chromatin can immobilize microbes, the extended nucleohistone network was called a neutrophil extracellular trap (NET), and the process of chromatin release was proposed to serve an innate immune defense function. Extracellular chromatin NETs were initially observed in studies of neutrophils and are most prominent in these types of granulocytes. Subsequent

NETosis

NETosis
  • Author : Geeta Rai
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 01 June 2019
GET THIS BOOKNETosis

NETosis: Immunity, Pathogenesis and Therapeutics takes a focused approach to the clinical aspects of NETosis and drug development, bringing critical findings. Chapters introduce NETosis, consider mechanisms and antimicrobial strategies regulating NETosis, examine NETosis in neonates, explore the role of NETosis in autoimmunity, delve into NETosis and other diseases, and present therapeutic approaches for dysregulated NETosis. Since Brinkamm, et al, discovered an unrecognized neutrophil anti-microbial mechanism responsible for the extracellular killing of invading pathogens in 2004, the novel process in which nuclear

NETosis

NETosis
  • Author : Geeta Rai
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 01 June 2019
GET THIS BOOKNETosis

NETosis: Immunity, Pathogenesis and Therapeutics takes a focused approach to the clinical aspects of NETosis and drug development, bringing critical findings. Chapters introduce NETosis, consider mechanisms and antimicrobial strategies regulating NETosis, examine NETosis in neonates, explore the role of NETosis in autoimmunity, delve into NETosis and other diseases, and present therapeutic approaches for dysregulated NETosis. Since Brinkamm, et al, discovered an unrecognized neutrophil anti-microbial mechanism responsible for the extracellular killing of invading pathogens in 2004, the novel process in which nuclear

Role of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis

Role of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis
  • Author : Maitham Khajah
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 07 June 2017
GET THIS BOOKRole of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis

This book highlights the important role of neutrophils in health as well as in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Section 1 provides a general background information regarding the mechanisms and various triggers of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation and their role in various infectious and noninfectious diseases (such as postinjury inflammation). Section 2 provides recent evidence regarding the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis as well as a therapeutic target for selected disease conditions such as periodontal diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and cystic

NETosis: At the Intersection of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology

NETosis: At the Intersection of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology
  • Author : Mariana J. Kaplan,Marko Radic
  • Publisher : Frontiers E-books
  • Release : 08 August 2013
GET THIS BOOKNETosis: At the Intersection of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology

NETosis is a unique form of cell death that is characterized by the release of decondensed chromatin and granular contents to the extracellular space. The initial observation of NETosis placed the process within the context of the innate immune response to infections. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes that arrive quickly at the site of an infection, were the first cell type shown to undergo extracellular trap formation. However, subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes are also capable of releasing nuclear

Systemic Autoimmunity

Systemic Autoimmunity
  • Author : P. E. Bigazzi
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 30 August 1991
GET THIS BOOKSystemic Autoimmunity

Surveys the biotechnologically influenced advances in the understanding of systemic autoimmune disorders, highlighting recent research using cell biology and biochemistry, the cloning of immune cells, recombinant DNA, and molecular genetics. Among the topics are the role of complement in inflammatio

Apoptosis and Beyond, 2 Volume Set

Apoptosis and Beyond, 2 Volume Set
  • Author : James A. Radosevich
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 25 September 2018
GET THIS BOOKApoptosis and Beyond, 2 Volume Set

These volumes teach readers to think beyond apoptosis and describes all of the known processes that cells can undergo which result in cell death This two-volume source on how cells dies is the first, comprehensive collection to cover all of the known processes that cells undergo when they die. It is also the only one of its kind to compare these processes. It seeks to enlighten those in the field about these many processes and to stimulate their thinking at

Cell Biology by the Numbers

Cell Biology by the Numbers
  • Author : Ron Milo,Rob Phillips
  • Publisher : Garland Science
  • Release : 07 December 2015
GET THIS BOOKCell Biology by the Numbers

A Top 25 CHOICE 2016 Title, and recipient of the CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title (OAT) Award. How much energy is released in ATP hydrolysis? How many mRNAs are in a cell? How genetically similar are two random people? What is faster, transcription or translation?Cell Biology by the Numbers explores these questions and dozens of others provid

Fibrinolysis and Thrombolysis

Fibrinolysis and Thrombolysis
  • Author : Krasimir Kolev
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 07 May 2014
GET THIS BOOKFibrinolysis and Thrombolysis

This book familiarizes the reader with some recent trends in the theory and practice of thrombolysis. It covers the field of fibrinolysis from the standpoint of basic scientists and clinicians and delivers the state-of-the-art information on the biochemistry and pharmacology of fibrinolysis, as well as related novel methodological and diagnostic tools in the field. An introductory chapter summarizes the basic molecular mechanisms in fibrinolysis (plasminogen, its endogenous activators and their inhibitors, plasmin and its inhibitors). Recent developments in our understanding

Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease

Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Author : Monte Willis,Jonathon W. Homeister,James R. Stone
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 23 December 2013
GET THIS BOOKCellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease

Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Cardiovascular Disease focuses on the pathophysiology of common cardiovascular disease in the context of its underlying mechanisms and molecular biology. This book has been developed from the editors' experiences teaching an advanced cardiovascular pathology course for PhD trainees in the biomedical sciences, and trainees in cardiology, pathology, public health, and veterinary medicine. No other single text-reference combines clinical cardiology and cardiovascular pathology with enough molecular content for graduate students in both biomedical research and clinical

The Resolution of Inflammation

The Resolution of Inflammation
  • Author : Adriano Rossi,Deborah A. Sawatzky
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 17 March 2008
GET THIS BOOKThe Resolution of Inflammation

This book provides readers with an up-to-date and comprehensive view on the resolution of inflammation and on new developments in this area, including pro-resolution mediators, apoptosis, macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells, possible novel drug developments.

Neutrophil Methods and Protocols

Neutrophil Methods and Protocols
  • Author : Mark T. Quinn,Frank R. DeLeo,Gary M. Bokoch
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 02 August 2007
GET THIS BOOKNeutrophil Methods and Protocols

This book provides a concise set of protocols for assessing basic neutrophil functions, investigating specialized areas in neutrophil research, and completing step-by-step diagnostic assays of common neutrophil disorders. Each of the protocols is written by leading researchers in the field and includes hints for success, as well as guidance for troubleshooting. Scientists and clinicians will find this collection an invaluable aid.

Stiehm's Immune Deficiencies

Stiehm's Immune Deficiencies
  • Author : Kathleen E Sullivan,E. Richard Stiehm
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 08 August 2014
GET THIS BOOKStiehm's Immune Deficiencies

Stiehm's Immune Deficiencies focuses on immunodeficiencies in children and adults. This book covers the many advances in the study of immunodeficiency. Stiehm's Immune Deficiencies includes 62 chapters covering topics such as newly described syndromes, genetic diagnosis, molecular abnormalities, newborn screening, and current therapies. Provides practical guidance to practitioners dealing with the day-to-day issues of diagnosis and management of immune deficient patients Covers both clinical management and scientific advances in one place Includes newly described disorders in various periodic updates to maintain

Cell Death

Cell Death
  • Author : Tobias Ntuli
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 16 December 2015
GET THIS BOOKCell Death

This book is a collection of selected and relevant research, concerning the developments within the Cell Death field of study. Each contribution comes as a separate chapter complete in itself but directly related to the books topics and objectives. The target audience comprises scholars and specialists in the field.

Flu

Flu
  • Author : Gina Kolata
  • Publisher : Farrar, Straus and Giroux
  • Release : 01 April 2011
GET THIS BOOKFlu

The fascinating, true story of the world's deadliest disease. In 1918, the Great Flu Epidemic felled the young and healthy virtually overnight. An estimated forty million people died as the epidemic raged. Children were left orphaned and families were devastated. As many American soldiers were killed by the 1918 flu as were killed in battle during World War I. And no area of the globe was safe. Eskimos living in remote outposts in the frozen tundra were sickened and killed by the