NETosis At the Intersection of Cell Biology Microbiology and Immunology

NETosis is a unique form of cell death that is characterized by the release of decondensed chromatin and granular contents to the extracellular space. The initial observation of NETosis placed the process within the context of the innate immune response to infections. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes that arrive quickly at the site of an infection, were the first cell type shown to undergo extracellular trap formation. However, subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes are also capable of releasing nuclear chromatin following stimulation. The extracellular chromatin acts to immobilize microbes and prevent their dispersal in the host. Bacterial breakdown products and inflammatory stimuli induce NETosis and the release of NETs requires enzyme activities. Histones in NET chromatin become modified by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and cleaved at specific sites by proteases. NETs serve for attachment of bactericidal enzymes including myeloperoxidase, leukocyte proteases, and the cathelicidin LL-37. While the benefit of NETs in an infection appears clear, NETs also figure prominently at the center of various pathologic states. Therefore, it is important for NETs to be efficiently cleared; else digestive enzymes may gain access to tissues where inflammation takes place. Persistent NET exposure at sites of inflammation may lead to a further complication: NET antigens may provoke acquired immune responses and, over time, could initiate autoimmune reactions. Recent studies identified aberrant NET synthesis and/or clearance in inflammatory/autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis, ANCA-positive vasculitis, gout and Felty’s syndrome. In the case of SLE, for example, it appears that LL-37 exposed in the NETs may be a significant trigger of type I Interferon responses in this disease. Recent evidence also implicates aberrant NET formation in the development of endothelial damage, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. NETosis is thus of interest to researchers who investigate innate immune responses, host-pathogen interactions, chronic inflammatory disorders, cell and vascular biology, biochemistry, and autoimmunity. As we approach the 10-year-anniversary of the initial discovery of NETosis, it is useful and timely to review the so far identified mechanisms and pathways of NET formation, their role in bacterial and fungal defense and their putative importance as inducers of autoimmune responses. We look forward to a rich and rigorous discussion of these and related issues that benefit from interdisciplinary approaches, collaborations and exciting discoveries.

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  • Author : Mariana J. Kaplan
  • Publisher : Frontiers E-books
  • Pages : 123 pages
  • ISBN : 2889191583
  • Rating : 4/5 from 21 reviews
CLICK HERE TO GET THIS BOOKNETosis At the Intersection of Cell Biology Microbiology and Immunology

NETosis: At the Intersection of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology

NETosis: At the Intersection of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology
  • Author : Mariana J. Kaplan,Marko Radic
  • Publisher : Frontiers E-books
  • Release : 08 August 2013
GET THIS BOOKNETosis: At the Intersection of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology

NETosis is a unique form of cell death that is characterized by the release of decondensed chromatin and granular contents to the extracellular space. The initial observation of NETosis placed the process within the context of the innate immune response to infections. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes that arrive quickly at the site of an infection, were the first cell type shown to undergo extracellular trap formation. However, subsequent studies showed that other granulocytes are also capable of releasing nuclear

NETosis

NETosis
  • Author : Geeta Rai
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 15 September 2019
GET THIS BOOKNETosis

NETosis: Immunity, Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Drug Development takes a focused approach to the clinical aspects of NETosis and drug development, bringing critical findings. Chapters introduce NETosis, consider mechanisms and antimicrobial strategies regulating NETosis, examine NETosis in neonates, explore the role of NETosis in autoimmunity, delve into NETosis and other diseases, and present therapeutic approaches for dysregulated NETosis. Since Brinkamm, et al, discovered an unrecognized neutrophil anti-microbial mechanism responsible for the extracellular killing of invading pathogens in 2004, the novel process in

Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases

Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases
  • Author : Walter Gottlieb Land
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 09 October 2018
GET THIS BOOKDamage-Associated Molecular Patterns in Human Diseases

This book presents current understanding of the importance of modern immunology in the etiopathogenesis of human diseases and explores how this understanding is impacting on diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prophylaxis. As the core of modern immunology, the “danger/injury model” is introduced and addressed throughout the book. Volume I of the book describes the network of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) and examines the central role of DAMPs in cellular stress responses and associated regulated cell death, the promotion and

Bacterial Virulence

Bacterial Virulence
  • Author : Philippe Sansonetti
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 05 April 2010
GET THIS BOOKBacterial Virulence

Starting with basic principles, this reference and handbook discusses examples of the most advanced models of bacterial infection with regard to their value as paradigms to understand the molecular cross-talks between microbes and their host and tissue targets. It adopts a very forward-looking, advanced approach, placing special emphasis on the main global challenges facing scientists today, such as pathogenicity vs. commensalisms, infections in immunocompromised hosts and species specificity issues.

Gram-Positive Pathogens

Gram-Positive Pathogens
  • Author : Vincent A. Fischetti,Richard P. Novick,Joseph J. Ferretti,Daniel A. Portnoy,Mirian Braunstein,Julian I. Rood
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 01 October 2019
GET THIS BOOKGram-Positive Pathogens

Gram-positive bacteria, lacking an outer membrane and related secretory systems and having a thick peptidoglycan, have developed novel approaches to pathogenesis by acquiring (among others) a unique family of surface proteins, toxins, enzymes, and prophages. For the new edition, the editors have enhanced this fully researched compendium of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens by including new data generated using genomic sequencing as well as the latest knowledge on Gram-positive structure and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and theories on the mechanisms of Gram-positive

Recent Progresses in Amebiasis

Recent Progresses in Amebiasis
  • Author : Anjan Debnath,Mario Alberto Rodriguez,Serge Ankri
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 14 October 2019
GET THIS BOOKRecent Progresses in Amebiasis

Amebiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by the unicellular protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, is the cause of at least 100,000 deaths each year. The disease is mostly prevalent in developing countries and is one of the three common causes of death from parasitic diseases. The parasite has two stages in its life cycle in the host: the infective cyst and the invasive trophozoite. In the large intestine, the parasite feeds on bacteria and on cellular debris. No vaccine against amebiasis currently exists.

Role of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis

Role of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis
  • Author : Maitham Khajah
  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 07 June 2017
GET THIS BOOKRole of Neutrophils in Disease Pathogenesis

This book highlights the important role of neutrophils in health as well as in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Section 1 provides a general background information regarding the mechanisms and various triggers of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation and their role in various infectious and noninfectious diseases (such as postinjury inflammation). Section 2 provides recent evidence regarding the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis as well as a therapeutic target for selected disease conditions such as periodontal diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, and cystic

Autophagy Networks in Inflammation

Autophagy Networks in Inflammation
  • Author : Maria Chiara Maiuri,Daniela De Stefano
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 17 August 2016
GET THIS BOOKAutophagy Networks in Inflammation

Autophagy principally serves an adaptive function to protect organisms against diverse human pathologies, including cancer and neurodegeneration. Recent developments using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models show the involvement of the autophagy pathway in immunity and inflammation. Moreover, direct interactions between autophagy proteins and immune signalling molecules have also been demonstrated. Defects in autophagy - similar to cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and aging - through autophagy gene mutation and/or microbial antagonism, may underlie the pathogenesis of many infectious

Apoptosis and Beyond

Apoptosis and Beyond
  • Author : James A. Radosevich
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 18 September 2018
GET THIS BOOKApoptosis and Beyond

These volumes teach readers to think beyond apoptosis and describes all of the known processes that cells can undergo which result in cell death This two-volume source on how cells dies is the first, comprehensive collection to cover all of the known processes that cells undergo when they die. It is also the only one of its kind to compare these processes. It seeks to enlighten those in the field about these many processes and to stimulate their thinking at

Apoptosis and Beyond, 2 Volume Set

Apoptosis and Beyond, 2 Volume Set
  • Author : James A. Radosevich
  • Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
  • Release : 18 December 2018
GET THIS BOOKApoptosis and Beyond, 2 Volume Set

These volumes teach readers to think beyond apoptosis and describes all of the known processes that cells can undergo which result in cell death This two-volume source on how cells dies is the first, comprehensive collection to cover all of the known processes that cells undergo when they die. It is also the only one of its kind to compare these processes. It seeks to enlighten those in the field about these many processes and to stimulate their thinking at

Advanced Trauma and Surgery

Advanced Trauma and Surgery
  • Author : Xiaobing Fu,Liangming Liu
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 15 November 2016
GET THIS BOOKAdvanced Trauma and Surgery

This book discusses different aspects of trauma surgery, ranging from the various types of trauma and their management, infection, sepsis and inflammation to tissue injury and repair in trauma. It discusses cellular, molecular and genetic research findings and their role in pathogenesis in trauma and injury. In addition, it highlights the translational application of advanced theories and technologies in the management of trauma patients. This book is a valuable resource for anyone involved in the management of severe trauma damage